iOS 7 continues Apple's long history of gesture-based controls, some system-wide like the new swipe up from the bottom bezel to open Control Center, and some app (or multi-app) specific, like the new swipe right from the left bezel to travel back to the list views in Mail or Messages. Gesture controls can be tricky, however. If not direct they can be hard to discover, if not consistent they can be hard to habituate, and if not carefully considered they can collide and conflict with each other, both system-wide and app specific.
Here's what Apple (opens in new tab) has to say about some of the gestures in iOS 7.
And here's what Apple's shown off so far.
- Swipe up from the bottom to reveal Control Center
- Swipe right from the left bezel in Mail and Messages to pull back the list view hierarchy (go from message content to message list to, in Mail, message box).
- Swipe right from the left bezel to go back in history in Safari.
- Swipe left from the right bezel to go forwards in history in Safari (if you've previously gone back).
- Toss up to close an app from the multitasking switcher.
- Toss left to close a tab in Safari.
Apple also showed switching Camera modes by swiping between them, as well as previously existing gestures like swiping between days in the Calendar, images and videos in Photos, and there may be other gestures, both informational (peek) and navigational (change) that Apple hasn't yet shown off yet as well.
Like Notification Center, Control Center will colide with anything already using a swipe-up-from-the-bottom gesture. Hue, the app that controls Phillips' Hue lightbulbs, comes immediately to mind. In Hue, you currently swipe up to access controls for all the lights. That'll have to change, as will any other app that currently uses something similar.
Because the swipe-right gesture appears limited to certain apps, namely Mail and Messages, it won't collide with other apps already using that gesture. However, the way Apple is implementing the interface in iOS 7 in general, because of that gesture in Mail or Messages, could make other apps look odd. Especially ones that currently use the popular "hamburger button and basement sidebar" design (I'm looking at you Facebook, Google apps, etc.)
Even if iOS doesn't stomp all over them, if they look wrong, or simply feel wrong on iOS 7, they may be forced to change and become more Mail or Messages-like. (And that might not be a bad thing.)
The good news is that all of these are direct manipulations. The bad news is that they're not all consistent or symmetrical.
Direct manipulation vs. abstract commands
Broadly speaking, there are two types of gesture controls, direct manipulation and abstract commands. Direct manipulation is akin to interacting with a physical object. Tapping a virtual button works like tapping a real-world button. Touching and sliding a virtual panel works like touching and sliding a real-world panel. Turning a virtual page works like... you get the idea. There's a 1:1 relationship between action and result that, when well implemented, feels like you're doing it, not just triggering it. That's why they're more discoverable (you can often chance upon, and quickly come to understand them, through play), and more easily remembered. They also offer the potential to "peek" at information by only partially sliding a panel open or turning a page. However, the number of ways you can directly manipulate an interface element are inherently limited.
Abstract commands are when the gesture performed on the touchscreen has little or no relationship to the function it performs. There's no 1:1 relationship, and like a button you're ultimately watching rather than doing. Swiping on a screen, waiting, and then watching it change is an example of how simple yet visceral the difference can be. Yet, for things like games, tracing a pattern on the screen to cast a spell or invoke a special attack work wonderfully well. Abstract controls, however, because they're abstract and because they can be far more numerous than direct manipulation are nowhere nearly as discoverable (you almost always need to be told about them), and they require a lot of memorization.
There are hybrids as well. Multiple finger gestures add a level of abstraction to direct manipulation. An example would be swiping with one finger to move the content on screen, swiping with two fingers to move between screens, and swiping with three fingers to move between apps. Each one directly manipulates something, but you have to remember a modifier to control exactly which something you're manipulating.
As much as people like to joke about Apple hating buttons, and minimizing buttons on their devices, iOS has always had a lot of buttons. There's the hardware Home button, of course, which is always there, an escape hatch for every mainstream user that, with a single click, will always return them to a known state (the Home screen). Beyond that, iOS has and continues to use a plethora of software buttons (even if many of them are now being rendered more like text links in than the previous, simulated mechanical button style).
Yet iOS has also always made use of multitouch gestures. Indeed, one of the biggest attractions of the original iPhone was its implementation of swipe, pinch, flick, and other intuitive, direct manipulations. Abstract commands were also included early on, most famously swipe-to-delete.
With the iPad version of iOS, Apple introduced system-wide gesture navigation. With four fingers you could swipe sideways between apps, up to get to the fast app switcher, and pinch to get back to the Home screen. Consistent throughout the system, once familiar, they made moving around iOS faster and easier.Because the iPad navigation gestures came later, however, they collided with some of the gestures already implemented by developers. The classic joke became Fruit-Ninja-ing your way out of the game and into Mail.
Apple didn't, and hasn't yet brought them to the iPhone, ostensibly because 4-finger gestures would be prohibitive on the smaller screen, and no obvious alternative presented itself.
Notification Center, which brought edge-gestures to iOS, caused similar collision problems with apps that had already implemented a downward swipe for their own controls. (Some mitigation was possible thanks to an intercept that only presented the grabber for Notification Center on first swipe, requiring a second swipe to "confirm" and actually pull it down.)
Fast camera access in iOS 6 let you swipe up from the bottom to get to the Camera app. However, since it was limited to the Lock screen, Apple had full control of the experience.
All this to say that simple, direct manipulations tend to be robust and easy to remember and make a lot of sense on the system-level, while abstract gestures are fiddly, tough to remember, and make more sense as advanced shortcuts for power users and gamers.
Apple, not surprising, sticks almost entirely to direct manipulation for iOS and relegates abstract controls to accessibility, where quantity trumps all other concerns.
The case for consistency
Where iOS 7 appears to be more problematic is in its consistency. Direct manipulations are more easily discovered, but in order for them to be habituated they need to be consistent. Notification Center is the perfect example. Any time, from anywhere, you can swipe down and what happens is exactly what you expect to happen - it appears.
Control Center should be the same. That it overlaps with fast camera access on the Lock screen is unfortunate and slightly awkward, but it shouldn't be hugely problematic. (The iOS 7 Lock screen has far bigger problems to fix right now anyway.)
The sideways gestures are where iOS 7 starts running into problems. First, because they're only implemented in specific apps, they require the user to remember which apps include them. Worse, because they're implemented inconsistently and asymmetrically across apps, they require the user to remember what they do in each app. That's a high cognitive burden.
For example, in Safari - and in Photos, Calendar, Weather, and other apps before it - swiping from left to right takes you back a screen in the sequence, and swiping right to left takes you forward. That's logical and symmetrical. Even Camera, where swiping changes modes, moves through the modes in sequence and remains consistent.
However, in Mail and Messages, swiping from left to right doesn't take you back through the sequence of messages, but up in the message hierarchy. You swipe back from message to message list to - in mail alone - message list box. Where it gets more challenging is swiping from right to left, because not only doesn't that take you forward through the sequence, it doesn't take you deeper into the hierarchy either. What it does do is switch from direct manipulation to quasi-abtract command, revealing a destructive action - delete. That's not only a massive cognitive change, but its asymmetrical (swiping different directions results in massively different behaviors), and its inconsistent with other apps.
Photos can have hierarchies with albums, Calendar days with months, so there's some overlap, but Apple's recognizing that hierarchies in Messages and Mail are far more important in real-world use cases than they are in other apps, and re-assigning the gesture. They're also keeping it simple by not, for example, leaving a one finger swipe to move through sequences of messages and using a two-finger swipe to move back to the hierarchy. That's understandable and, in a world filled with trade-offs, sensible.
Switching from direct manipulation to go back to abstract command to delete is less understandable and sensible, but more a reflection of a legacy control Apple's been using since iOS 1 (iPhone OS 1.0).
In a perfect world swiping from right to left from the edge would move you into whatever message your touching, while touching a message and holding would allow you to delete it, much like cards and tabs. Apple has used modal gestures before, for example an edit button that changes an upward movement from the general scroll gesture to a specific item re-arranging gesture. It adds complexity but also functionality. Detect if the gesture started at or near the edge, and if so make it navigation. If not, if it started on the meaty part of an item in a list, make it editorial. It will require learning, but not much.
As to fast Camera access on the Lock screen, having top, left, and bottom + bottom-offset gestures seems less well balanced that having top, left, bottom, and right gestures. Swiping one way to unlock and the other to enable fast actions, Camera now, who knows what else later, might be a workable trade off.
The most important thing is consistency. Unless and until a swipe takes you back in every app where there's something to go back to, it'll always be harder to remember and become habituated to. Unless and until a forward swipe does something in every app where there's a backward swipe, and there's something to forward to, likewise.
For gestures to really become intuitive and mainstream, they have to always be where they're expected, and always do as expected. And when compromises have to be made, they have to make sense under the circumstances.
iOS 7 is a great start, but it still feels a lot like a start.
iOS 7 gestures
Gestures are an incredibly rich, incredibly deep topic that's difficult to write about and far, far, far more difficult to design and develop. A lot of supremely talented people are working on implementing them, and things like pinch-to-zoom have shown, when done right, they can quickly become integral parts of mainstream computing.
iOS 7 gestures will ship with the rest of the update sometime this fall. In the meantime, let me know what you think - which gestures do you prefer, and how would you like to see them implemented?
- Iterate 22: Gesture based interface
- iOS 7: Everything you need to know
- iOS 7: Discussion forum
Rene Ritchie is one of the most respected Apple analysts in the business, reaching a combined audience of over 40 million readers a month. His YouTube channel, Vector, has over 90 thousand subscribers and 14 million views and his podcasts, including Debug, have been downloaded over 20 million times. He also regularly co-hosts MacBreak Weekly for the TWiT network and co-hosted CES Live! and Talk Mobile. Based in Montreal, Rene is a former director of product marketing, web developer, and graphic designer. He's authored several books and appeared on numerous television and radio segments to discuss Apple and the technology industry. When not working, he likes to cook, grapple, and spend time with his friends and family.
Good article as always. Can't wait for iOS7!
Great article. Let's hope someone at Apple is reading your column Rene and the version being release to everyone works well. I don't think they can handle another 'imaps' kind of debacle.
The gesture problems cannot be overstressed enough because of their importance for mobile devices - thank you for pin-pointing in this direction.
As an example, deleting an item in a UITableView on iOS7 is done with a swipe-from-right-to-left gesture - in contrast to ≤iOS6 where it was exact the opposite. This is a learned habit, UX and support nightmare!
ps: the lock screen still irritates me as much as the bulimic in-app icons
They really need to add the swipe left and right gestures to notification centre to change between today, all and missed. Really hope thats added before its release.
I want that too.
Good analysis on the evolution of gesture controls on iOS. Though the new gestures and control interfaces add some complexity, I think that Apple has struck a good balance between abstraction and usability (Try using BlackBerry OS 10 to see what abstract gestures run amuck feels like). I am most looking forward to the wide spread implementation of the swipe back gesture in iOS 7, because the alternative of thumb acrobatics to the upper left-hand corner on iPhone can be difficult and frustrating. This gesture will become much more useful when Apple and even more 3rd parties implement the gesture in a similar manner. Many apps already use similar gesture based "go back" controls, such as reading apps like Prismatic, Zite and Digg. The gesture implementation in these apps greatly improve speed and usability, and also serve orient the user as the gesture gives a peek at what's "behind" the current screen. This swiping action for navigating back contributes to the overall sense of depth that Apple has discussed regarding iOS 7; sliding a window across the screen imparts the idea that information is layered, and to uncover it becomes as intuitive as moving a sheet of paper across a table to reveal another page underneath. To that end, I'm not as worried that the "asymmetric" behavior of the back gesture will be too problematic, because by its very nature selecting an item to "go forward" is a more complex choice (use a tap to go "forward" among many options versus using a swipe "backwards" in hierarchy). Using the example of iMessage, when selecting a message to read you're as far into the hierarchy as you can go, and naturally you will want to go back to view the entire message list to get a glance at other messages, and when you're back at the message list it is unlikely that you'll want to swipe forward to the same message that you happened to view at an earlier point (or rather, it's just as likely that one would want to tap on any other conversation). When arriving back at a list, utilizing a tap just makes more sense than keeping some arbitrary "go forward" gesture queued up. The movement of the go back window "peek" will serve to train users about how to use the back gesture, that it's an action on the window and not the items in any given list. When users swipe right-to-left on a message to reveal other options (delete, archive, share, etc.), that gesture can also be undone by halting and reversing the motion, just as a swipe to go back from the left-to-right can be undone by reversing before completing the motion.
Good to see that they copied part of BB10 gestrures, however, it feels very much like an overlay on an old system as opposed to a "to the core" and in-depth approach of the BB10 OS.
They would eventually have to rewrite entirely the OS rather than come up with cosmetic changes (although pretty nice) and largely inspired features such as the gestures. Although for the latter point, I fully agree that they were existing in Mac OS just as the grid of icons was existing on other devices...
It is nice to see some UI/UX convergence between different platforms, tells you that it is a very good feature.
Thanks Rene! That was great. Will be getting an iPod touch just for iOS 7 beta. Not going to put any beta iOS rev on my actual iPhone, but the anticipation is almost unbearable!
I don't agree that the swiping "back" in Mail is inconsistent with the same swipe in Safari and other apps. It does exactly what I would expect it to do. It's swiping "back" to the previous screen. This is the way it works in iOS mail at the moment as well. If it suddenly jumped up to the previous email in the list (which is at that point not even visible), it would be jarring and unexpected. You have to remember as well that the list is not always a list because of the grouping of conversations. It's not always clear what the "previous message" would even be. I don't have iOS 7 so maybe I'm reading your description wrong but on the face of it I don't see any inconsistency at all.
What I was saying is that sometimes consistency is wrong. Going back in sequence in mail would be wrong, so being consistent there would be wrong. Going back in the hierarchy, for mail, is better. The inconsistency there is the better c